All work submitted for credit is expected to be the student’s own work. In the preparation of all papers and other written work, students should always take great care to distinguish their own ideas and knowledge from information derived from other sources. The term “sources” includes not only published primary and secondary material, but also information and opinions gained directly from other people.
The responsibility for learning the proper forms of citation lies with the individual student. Quotations must be properly placed within quotation marks and must be fully cited. In addition, all paraphrased material must be completely acknowledged. Whenever ideas or facts are derived from a student’s reading and research, the sources must be indicated.
The amount of collaboration with others that is permitted in the completion of assignments can vary, depending upon the policy set by the head of the course. Students must assume that collaboration in the completion of assignments is prohibited unless explicitly permitted by the instructor. Students must acknowledge any collaboration and its extent in all submitted work.
Students who are in any doubt about the preparation of academic work should consult with their instructor or the dean for student affairs before it is prepared or submitted. See the guidebook entitled “Harvard Guide to Using Sources.”
Students are expected to record honestly and accurately the results of all their research. Falsification of research results includes misrepresentations, distortions, or serious omissions in data or reports on research, and is considered a serious violation of academic honesty. Plagiarism or falsification of research results will ordinarily result in requirement to withdraw from the Graduate School.
The University is deeply concerned for the integrity of science by students and faculty and with sound and safe research practices. Student and faculty researchers are, individually and collectively, expected to safeguard and maintain the University’s policies and practices with respect to scientific misconduct. All researchers are reminded that sponsoring agencies also have such concerns, and that the University must inform sponsors of serious transgressions of sponsors’ policies as well as of any investigations related to sponsored research, and that sponsors may take action independent of the University.